Project „New Search Engine“

Linux - Commands

 

Before running of a program it is necessary to add its pathname into the directory PATH (just C++?).

Clear memory caches

sudo sh -c "sync; echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches"

Disks, directories and files properties

 

df

ls –l directory/* | wc –l

du –s directory

 

Searching

 

phejl@ph-zfs0:~$ grep -r --max-count=1 -o "wedos.projects.mediafactory" /data/hledac/files/www_pages/*


Rename many files in directory

find . -name 'jsapi' -print0 | xargs -0 rename 's/jsapi/jsapi_2/

#!/bin/bash
for i in `find . -print | grep jsapi`; do mv $i ${i}_2; done
 

Replace text in many files in directory

for file in $(grep -il "Hello" *.txt)

do

sed -e "s/Hello/Goodbye/ig" $file > /tmp/tempfile.tmp

mv /tmp/tempfile.tmp $file

done


for z in `find . -type f -name "*.html" -o -name "*.htm"`; do

sed -e 's@abc@xyz@g' $z>temp;

mv temp $z && rm temp;

done

#!/bin/bash
for fl in `grep -rl xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx * | xargs`; do
  echo $fl
  mv $fl $fl.old
  sed 's/xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/g' $fl.old > $fl
  rm -f $fl.old
done

Monitoring of system (load)

http://www.linuxzone.cz/modules/tisk_clanku-nw.phtml?ids=9&idc=279

Reboot

 

shutdown -r now





Write rights







chmod -R a+w,g+w,a+x jmeno_souboru_nebo_adresare



Batches Downloaders:



cd /home/phejl/mini/batches/batches_ubuntu_data/downloaders#



chmod a+x *.sh







Threads







http://www.zive.cz/clanky/poznavame-c-a-microsoft-net-48-dil--uvod-do-pouziti-vlaken/sc-3-a-127580/default.aspx







Bashes







Paralell running of commands or processes:



process1 & process2 & process3 &



read -p "Press Enter to continue "

sleep 1
echo This is comment (remark)

Run program using mono

mono-2.10 mono /home/phejl/mini/programs/c_sharp/linux/Fronter/Fronter /bin/Release/Fronter.exe

Links

http://www.google.cz/#hl=cs&xhr=t&q=linux+commands
http://www.computerhope.com/unix.htm#04
http://www.oreillynet.com/linux/cmd/

http://www.pixelbeat.org/cmdline.html
http://www.debianhelp.co.uk/commands.htm
http://www.linuxconfig.org/linux-commands

Names

Names of commands, directories, files etc. are case sensitive.

 

Password

passwd

 

Arrow up, arrow down

Movement in commands (previous, next)

 

sudo

Command to perform commands, also under other (system, root) identity.

 

update

sudo apt-get update

 

Directories, running of programs

/usr/bin/

/applications/programming/

/usr/lib/mono

/usr/lib/mono

/usr/lib/monodevelop/bin/monodevelop.exe

/opt

 

Which processes run

http://www.computerhope.com/unix/ups.htm

http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/show-all-running-processes-in-linux/

ps

ps aux | less

pas aux | name

-A:  select all processes

a:  select all processes on a terminal, including those of other users

x:  select processes without controlling tys

Task: see every process on the system

# ps -A

# ps -e

Task: See every process except those running as root

# ps -U root -u root -N

Task: See process run by user vivek

# ps -u vivek

Finds number of running process:

pidof name

 

Kill process

http://www.computerhope.com/unix/ukill.htm
http://linux.about.com/library/cmd/blcmdl_kill.htm
kill [-s] [-l] %pid

 

Unable to lock directory

http://www.google.cz/#sclient=psy&hl=cs&q=linux+error+could+not+get+lock+%2Fvar%2Fcache%2Fapt%2Farchives%2Flock
http://www.linuxquestions.org/questions/linux-software-2/var-cache-apt-archives-lock-error-457486/

See which process holds it:

lsof | grep "/var/cache/apt/archives/lock"

mkdir -p /var/cache/apt/archives/lock

touch /var/cache/apt/archives/lock

this helps:

sudo rm /var/cache/apt/archives/lock

 

Downloading

git

wget

 

Unpacking

tar

 

List file

cat name

 

Find

http://www.computerhope.com/unix/ufind.htm
find /usr/bin –name ‘mono’

find /usr/bin –name ‘mono*’

find /usr/bin –name ‘MonoDevelop.exe’

find /usr/bin –name ‘MonoDevelop.*’

Take care: names are case sensitive.

 

Copy

http://www.computerhope.com/unix/ucp.htm
sudo cp file1.txt nadir

Copies the file1.txt in the current directory to the newdir directory.

sudo cp /home/public_html/mylog.txt /home/public_html/backup/mylog.bak

Copies the mylog.txt file in the public_html directory into the public_html/backup directory as mylog.bak. The files are identical however have different names.

sudo cp *.txt nadir

Copy all files ending in .txt into the newdir directory.

sudo cp -r /home/hope/files/* /home/hope/backup

 

Delete (remove)

http://www.computerhope.com/unix/urmdir.htm
sudo rmdir directory

http://www.computerhope.com/unix/urm.htm

sudo rm  –r -f directory

sudo rm  –r -f file

Remove all in directory file without prompting.

 

Rename

http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000846.htm#3
http://linux.about.com/library/cmd/blcmdl1_rename.htm
http://www.oreillynet.com/linux/cmd/cmd.csp?path=r/rename
sudo rename from to where

sudo mv from where

renames, if my exists

 

Install

http://linux.about.com/library/cmd/blcmdl1_install.htm
install name -version

sudo apt-get install name

aptitude install name

 

Which version of Ubuntu?

lsb_release –a

sudo lsb_release –a

 

My version of Ubuntu

Release: 10.10

Codename: maverick

 

Gui

Install GNOME desktop:

sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop

If you wan to install a graphical desktop manager without some of the desktop addons like Evolution and OpenOffice, but continue to use the server flavor kernel use the following command

sudo aptitude  install --no-install-recommends ubuntu-desktop

If you want to install light weight desktop install xfce using the following command

sudo apt-get install xubuntu-desktop

If you want to install KDE desktop use the following command

sudo apt-get install kubuntu-desktop

 

PATH

Setting

Initial setting in Uuntu by Mr. Panoch

/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games:

Setting in Ubuntu according to Mr. Panoch, completed by mysem with directory for programs and files in mini directory (C++)

/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games:

My additions:

/home/phejl/mini/programs:/home/phejl/mini/programs

/home/phejl/mini/programs:/home/phejl/mini/programs/c_sharp/Hlodacz/Hlodacz/bin/Debug

/opt/mono-2.8

PATH=/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/X11R6/bin

from sh

PATH=/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/bin/X11:/usr/games:

from csh

setenv PATH /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/bin/X11:/usr/games:

for bash shell

export PATH=$PATH:/usr/sbin/:/usr/local/bin

for tcsh or csh

set PATH = ($PATH /usr/sbin /usr/local/bin)

extension of PATH

PATH=$PATH:/home/phejl/mini/programs

initial petting from shell

export PATH=/home/foo

listing

echo PATH

 

Properties of programs and files

The file's executable bits still need to be set regardless of user, see manual pages for chmod for details

example:

chmod 777 program.bin

chmod 777 file.bin

sets rwx permissions for all users

chmod a+x program.bin

To see permissions

ls -l program.bin

ls -l file.bin

ls –all

which g++ - shows, in which directory the program is placed

c++, g++ programs are in directory: /usr/bin

g++ libraries are in: /usr/include/c++/4.4

 

vim – download and install
hg clone https://vim.googlecode.com/hg/vim
cd vim/src

make

 

mono – install
http://www.integratedwebsystems.com/2011/03/monodevelop-2-4-and-2-6-beta-install-script-for-ubuntu-fedora/
Mono 2.10 (instaluje to Mono 2.10.5)
sudo rmdir –r /usr/lib/mono-2.10
sudo mkdir /usr/lib/ mono-2.10
sudo cd /usr/lib/mono-2.10
sudp wget --no-check-certificate https://github.com/nathanb/iws-snippets/raw/master/mono-install-scripts/ubuntu/install_mono-2.10.sh
sudo chmod 755 install_mono-2.10.sh
sudo ./install_mono-2.10.sh
http://www.integratedwebsystems.com/2011/08/install-mono-2-10-3-on-ubuntu-using-bash-script/
sudo mkdir /usr/lib/mono-2.10
sudo cd mono-2.10
sudo wget --no-check-certificate https://github.com/nathanb/iws-snippets/raw/master/mono-install-scripts/ubuntu/install_mono-2.10.sh
sudo chmod 755 install_mono-2.10.sh

sudo bash install_mono-2.10.sh
http://www.integratedwebsystems.com/2011/01/mono-2-8-2-script-updated-for-ubuntu-and-fedora/

wget --no-check-certificate https://github.com/nathanb/iws-snippets/raw/master/mono-install-scripts/ubuntu/install_mono-2.8.2.sh

chmod 755 install_mono-2.8.2.sh

./install_mono-2.8.2.sh

http://www.hbyconsultancy.com/blog/install-asp-net-3-5-environment-for-ubuntu-maverick-10-10.html
First we need to install the necessary packages :

$ sudo apt-get install monodevelop mono-devel monodevelop-database mono-debugger mono-xsp2 libapache2-mod-mono mono-apache-server2 apache2

The Apache mod_mono module is enabled after this by default, I just disable this and enable mod_mono_auto instead for Auto Configuration :

$ sudo a2dismod mod_mono

$ sudo a2enmod mod_mono_auto

Finally we’ll have to edit the mod_mono_auto.conf and add default locations :

$ sudo -b gedit /etc/apache2/mods-available/mod_mono_auto.conf

Then add in the end :

MonoPath default "/usr/lib/mono/3.5"

MonoServerPath default /usr/bin/mod-mono-server2

AddMonoApplications default "/:/var/www"

We restart Apache again

$ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Now let’s create a simple hello world and give it a try :

$ sudo -b gedit /var/www/index.aspx

And enter the code below, or any other sample

<%@ Page Language="C#" %>

<html>

<head>

<title>Sample Calendar</title>

</head>

<asp:calendar showtitle="true" runat="server">

</asp:calendar>

Then fire your fox at http://localhost/index.aspx and you should see the default calendar, Easy ?

Mono 10.1. install:

https://github.com/nathanb/iws-snippets/tree/master/mono-install-scripts/ubuntu
https://github.com/nathanb/iws-snippets/blob/master/mono-install-scripts/ubuntu/install_mono-2.10.1.sh
See d:/mini/install/install_mono_2_10_1.sh


Mono - run
The command line way is "mono appfilename.exe". Or you could also open it through the explorer, by left or right clicking the exe, depending on your desktop type / settings. On Ubuntu Gnome, I used to do: right click / open with / mono. You could also set Mono as the default program to run exe files.
If you want to start the exe without having to type mono <applicationname> do: apt-get install binfmt-support.
A word of caution: This also enables wine applications to run without wine <applicationname>.
Mono-2-10.1
mono-2.10 mono program
Pokorny Robin:

Pokud budete chtít z konzole něco pouštět přes mono 2.10.1 zadejte před příkaz mono-2.10, tedy např "mono-2.10 mono -V" Případně můžete zadat "source mono-2.10-environment" a vše se bude spouštět s mono 2.10.1.

Nepodařilo se mi to nastavit jako mono-2.10.1, proto jsem vytvořil v /opt adresář se zálohou, kam jsem přesunul původní obsah adresáře. Doufám, že to nevadí.
Nathan Bridgewater
mono-setup.sh:
#!/bin/bash

MONO_PREFIX=/opt/mono-2.10

GNOME_PREFIX=/usr

export DYLD_LIBRARY_FALLBACK_PATH=$MONO_PREFIX/lib:$DYLD_LIBRARY_FALLBACK_PATH

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$MONO_PREFIX/lib:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH

export C_INCLUDE_PATH=$MONO_PREFIX/include:$GNOME_PREFIX/include

export ACLOCAL_PATH=$MONO_PREFIX/share/aclocal

export PKG_CONFIG_PATH=$MONO_PREFIX/lib/pkgconfig:$GNOME_PREFIX/lib/pkgconfig

export PATH=$MONO_PREFIX/bin:$PATH

PS1="[mono] \w @ "
compile test:
7za x help.7z
cd help
source mono-setup.sh
cd test
make
mono bin/test.exe "weburl"

Monodevelop - install

http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/ubuntu/install-monodevelop-on-ubuntu-linux/

sudo apt-get install mono mono-gmcs mono-gac mono-utils monodevelop monodoc-browser monodevelop-nunit monodevelop-versioncontrol
Asi fungují jen některé části z výše uvedeného.

http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/linux/installing-monodevelop-from-source-on-ubuntu/

sudo apt-get install mono-devel build-essential mono-gmcs libmono-dev libpango1.0-dev libgtk2.0-dev libgtksourceview2.0-cil libgecko2.0-cil monodoc libmono-system-runtime2.0-cil libmono-cairo2.0-cil gettext

Now you’ll want to download, extract and untar the latest source code into a directory of your choice. (You’ll want to make sure 0.16 is still the latest)

sudo wget http://go-mono.com/sources/monodevelop/monodevelop-0.16.tar.bz2

newer:

sudo wget http://ftp.novell.com/pub/mono/sources/monodevelop/monodevelop-2.4.tar.bz2

newest:

sudo wget http://ftp.novell.com/pub/mono/sources/monodevelop/monodevelop-2.5.90.tar.bz2

sudo bunzip2 monodevelop-2.5.90.tar.bz2

sudo tar xvf monodevelop-2.5.90.tar

cd monodevelop-2.5.90

Now we can start the compilation, and you’ll notice that the ./configure line passes in the prefix option so that it will install in the correct directory.

./configure –prefix=`pkg-config –variable=prefix mono`

make

sudo make install

At this point MonoDevelop should be installed. You can launch it with Alt+F2 by entering monodevelop into the run box.

$ git clone git@github.com:mono/monodevelop.git

If you don't have developer access, you can always use the read-only url:

$ git clone git://github.com/mono/monodevelop.git

Mono and Monodevelop install

http://www.linuxquestions.org/questions/linux-software-2/installing-monodevelop-787522/

See d:/mini/install/ install_mono_2_10_2_and_monodevelop_2_5_90.sh

.NET – install
sudo apt-get install .net
Install MonoDevelop 2.4.2 or 2.6 Beta on Ubuntu & Fedora:
http://www.integratedwebsystems.com/2011/03/monodevelop-2-4-and-2-6-beta-install-script-for-ubuntu-fedora/
Monodevelop 2.6.1 beta = 2.5.90
sudo rmdir –r /usr/lib/monodevelop-2.6
sudo mkdir /usr/lib/monodevelop-2.6
sudo cd /usr/lib/monodevelop-2.6
wget --no-check-certificate https://github.com/nathanb/iws-snippets/raw/master/mono-install-scripts/ubuntu/install_monodevelop-2.5.90.sh
chmod 755 install_monodevelop-2.5.90.sh
./install_monodevelop-2.5.90.sh

Monodevelop - run

Pokorny Robin:

Nastavení .NET Runtimes se mi přes konzoli nepovedlo, nejspíš se musí nastavit přímo v aplikaci (Tools/Preferences/.NET Runtimes).
Přes dávku v NX – Places - /usr/lib/monodevelop-2.6/monodevelop_launcher.sh
 

File managers

mc

bsc

krusader

nautilus

 

Text editors

vim

gedit

 

logout

logout

 

help

help

manuál

man command
e.g.:
man chmod

 

Batches

extension: .sh

bash

sudo bash

shell

 

Remarks

To execute a program,, the atribute "executable" must be set on.

Apache
/etc/init.d/apache2 start
/etc/init.d/apache2 stop

 

See also C++ - commands Linux.